If they can throw it that far without it being stopped, then there is nothing to stop them doing so.
No. It doesn't matter where the goalkeeper is.The ballmust be in the penalty area (on the line is inside) for the keeper to touch it.
Yes. The goalkeeper may leave the penalty area at any time during play, but cannot touch the ball with his hands while outside of the area.
The penalty area.
When a penalty kick is taken, only the kicker, the goalkeeper, the referee, and one assistant referee are allowed to be inside the penalty area.
If an attacker was fouled in the penalty area by anyone on the defending team, including the goalkeeper, then the resulting restart would be a penalty kick from the penalty mark for the team that was fouled. In this instance, it seems to point to a foul.
In short, no. A goal kick is not complete (the ball in not yet in play) until the whole of the ball crosses the whole of the penalty area line and into the field of play. If the goalkeeper touches the ball before it completely leaves the penalty area, the goal kick must be retaken. If the goalkeeper touches the ball with his hands after the ball has left the penalty area and become "in-play", then he is guilty of a handling infraction because the ball is not within the keeper's own penalty area anymore. Either the ball is still in the penalty area or it isn't; it can't be both. This is all without even considering the fact that a goalkeeper cannot handle a ball that has been intentionally kicked to him by a teammate, the so-called "pass-back" rule.
The area within which a goalkeeper may usually legally handle the ball is called the penalty area, and measures 44 yards across and 18 yards deep. The goalkeeper may leave this area, but is treated like any other player while outside of the penalty area.
If it's deliberate handling, he gives away a direct free kick. If he's the last defending player and stops an opponent from scoring, he can be sent off.
Not legally. No player is allowed in the penalty area whilst a goal kick is being taken other than the player taking the goal kick (usually the goalkeeper). If anotehr outfield player takes the goal kick then the goalkeeper can be in the penalty area. No player is allowed the touch the ball after the kick is taken until it leaves the penalty area.
No, the only place a goalkeeper may handle the ball is in his own penalty area.
The goal keeper may touch the ball with his hands and arms in his team's penalty area.