If it does so between the goal posts and under the cross bar, then it's a goal and a kick off for the defense. If it does so elsewhere then it is a goal kick for the defense.
If it does so between the goal posts and under the cross bar, then a goal is awarded and the restart is a kick off for the defense. If not, then it is a goal kick for the defense.
It is called out of 'bounds' after hit by an attacker that lands outside the boundaries of the opponents court area. The team on that side of the net then is awarded the point, unless it a team member touches it before landing 'out of bounds'. Then it is the attacking team that is awarded the point.
It is legal for a teammate to kick the ball to their own goal keeper. The goalkeeper would not be allowed to use their hands. If they do so, then it would be an indirect free kick for the opponents at the location the goalkeeper touched the ball. A penalty kick would not be awarded.
A free kick is a restart awarded to a team when their opponents commit certain fouls, misconduct, and other infractions of the Laws of the Game. The ball is placed on the ground and is stationary. A player from the team given the kick then kicks the ball, and it is in play. The opposing team must remain 10 yards away from the ball until it is kicked (unless they are standing on their own goal line between the goalposts; only possible on Indirect Free Kicks).
The opposing team is awarded a goal kick.
The purpose a throw in is to get the ball back in play. FIFA decided to "punish" the team who was unable to keep the ball out of bounds, so they awarded corner kicks and goal kicks for when the ball was kicked past the goal lines, and the awarded a throw in to the team who didn't kick the ball out of bounds since they didn't lose it in the first place.
No, it is not a ground rule double. If an offensive player other than the batter kicks a batted fair ball out of play, he is out for interference, the ball is dead, the batter is awarded first base, and all runners return to the base they occupied at the time of the pitch. Note: the umpire may also call the batter out, at the umpire's discretion. If the batter kicks a batted fair ball out of play, he is out for interference, the ball is dead, and all runners return to the base they occupied at the time of the pitch. If any offensive player kicks a batted foul ball out of play, the ball is dead, and it is up to the umpire's discretion as to whether the ball is foul or whether the player or batter is out for interference and which bases the runners and batter are awarded. If a defensive player kicks a pitched ball out of play, the ball is dead, and all runners, including the batter if the pitch was ball four, are awarded one or two bases from the base they occupied at the time the ball was kicked (see MLB rule 7.05 for whether one or two bases). If a defensive player kicks a batted foul ball out of play, it is a foul ball. If a defensive player kicks a batted fair ball out of play, the batter is awarded second base, and all runners are awarded two bases from the base they occupied at the time of the pitch. If a defensive player kicks a ball out of play which has already been touched by another defensive player, all runners including the batter advance two bases from the base they occupied at the time the ball was kicked.
A goal keeper cannot deliberately handle the ball outside of his own penalty area. If they do, then a direct free kick is awarded to the opponents.
A goal kick is awarded to the defense when the ball completely exits the field across a goal line and was last touched by an attacker.
side of pitch = throw in ... past your goalie's goal = goal kick