they were called Sailing Ships
They were called shipwrights
They still are
Wooden sailing ships.
A Clipper was the fastest of all sailing ships.For a sailing ships to be faster draught of that ship must be low.Other fast-sailing ships are:CarrackCaravelSloopSchoonerBrigBrigandineBarque
A brig or a bark.
Some of the earliest sailing ships were merely rafts, as proven by Thor Heyerdahl with the "Kon Tiki" in 1947.
First were sailing ships, THEN steam ships.
It is called navigation
These were called the "clipper ships", and were predominantly British and American ships. They were narrower than previous vessels, and among the fastest sailing ships ever built. They were only eclipsed by the development of practical steam power.