Jim Perry on Opening Day in the 1970 season, defeating the Chicago White Sox 12-0.
The pitcher must be on the "rubber" when making a pitch.
A good pitcher pitches well.
it depends on who the pitcher is, what type of pitch and how much movement the pitch has
The pitch goes towards the pitcher's strike count.
A pitcher usually tries to throw a pitch where the hitter can't hit it .
In MLB, there is no rule about the number of consecutive innings a pitcher can pitch.
Yes, the pitcher has to be in contact with the rubber or if not the pitch will be illegal
Yes, if the batter was retired with that 1 pitch or got on base or was hit by the pitch. In other words if that batter is no longer up or if this was not the 1st batter the pitcher has faced and the pitcher threw a strike or a ball then the manager could take him out or if the pitcher suffered an injury with that one pitch. If the pitcher comes into a game and throws only one pitch and the batter is still up and there is no injury to the pitcher, then the pitcher must pitch to the batter till he is retired or reaches base on a hit, walk, error, fielders choice, etc.
The speed varies from pitcher to pitcher but the average is about 85-100 depending on the type of pitch thrown.