A chunk, or people may say you caught it fat, or if it bounces off the ground then the club hits the ball it is known as a drop kick.
Basically a stroke is where a genuine movement is made towards the golf ball. Once you address the ball and make a swing, this counts as a stroke, even if you miss it.
It's a stroke that doesn't produce the desired result. All swings are different, so to me the success of a stroke is determined by the outcome. Did the ball end up reasonably close to where you wanted it to go? Then its a good stroke - regardless of how it looked.
Whiff is to miss the ball entirely on a stroke. : (
you hit it with a golf club on the ground or on a peg
Lose a stroke
Have you seen a golf swing? The idea is to hit the ball with the swing, that is the only way to play the game.