No. A player is never in an offside position when he is on his own side of the field.
For an offside infraction to occur a player must be in an offside position at the moment it is touched by a team-mate. If the goal keeper is from the other team then the player is not guilty of an offside infraction.
In MLS they use the offside markers to see if a player is offside
No. A player cannot be offside directly from a goal kick.
A player CAN NOT be called for an offside infringement if not "active in the play" however you can be "active in the play" without playing the ball. A player CAN be in an offside POSITION with out being "active in the play."
No. A player can never be in an offside position while on their own half. A player could be in an offside position in the opponent's half at the time of the touch, run back to their own half to collect it, and be guilty of an offside offense. The officials would wait and see what the player did once they were determined to be in an offside state.
A player may be guilty of an offside offense directly from a direct free kick.
A player may not be guilty of an offside offense directly from a goal kick.
An onside player is any player who is not in an offside position, as described in Law 11. Offside players are penalized if they become involved in active play.
The original offside rule was that if any attacking player is ahead of the last defender when the ball is played then the attacking player must be given offside. The player must be given offside even if he doesn't receive the pass. The new rule is that the player can only be given offside if he is interfering with play i.e. he receives the ball, he obstructs defending players, blcoks the goalkeepers view, etc.
In the tackle scenarion. When a ruck, maul, scrum or lineout forms, a player who is offside and is retiring as required by Law remains offside even when the opposing team wins possession and the ruck, maul, scrum or lineout has ended. The player is put onside by retiring behind the applicable offside line. No other action of the offside player and no action of that player's team mates can put the offside player onside. If the player remains offside the player can be put onside only by the action of the opposing team. There are two such actions: An Opponent runs 5 metres with ball. When an opponent carrying the ball has run 5 metres, the offside player is put onside. An offside player is not put onside when an opponent passes the ball. Even if the opponents pass the ball several times, their action does not put the offside player onside. An Opponent kicks. When an opponent kicks the ball, the offside player is put onside. Related links will take you to the IRB rules covering the range of offside and on side regulations
Being ahead of the defensive line and the ball, though if a player is ahead of the defensive line but behind the ball, they are not offside