It depends how far you need to go. You can hit anything from a sand wedge to a 3 wood from a bunker. When hitting a fairway bunker shot, you need to make sure you have enough lift to clear the lip, but you should also choke down on the grip slightly. A fairway bunker shot differs from a green side bunker shot in that, in a green side shot you want to hit a couple of inches behind the ball, in a fairway bunker, you want to catch it ball first, otherwise you will just duff the ball about 30 yards.
You can not ground your club (touch the ground behind the ball with the club head) in a fairway bunker. All bunkers are hazards either by the green or along the fairway.
You can use any club, anywhere. You could hit a putter off the tee or out of a bunker even though you probably wouldn't. Likewise you can use any club on the green, some players even pitch the difficult pin positions.
No, the only time you are allowed to ground your club in the bunker is when you are playing an actual shot. If you ground your club in the bunker prior to a stroke it is a two shot penalty.
You can, you can use any club you want out of the bunker... results may vary.
When this happen, There is no relief from a ball embedded in a bunker.
A rescue club is very versatile and can be used in a number of situations. You can use it off the tee, you can use it from the fairway instead of a long iron and some people even use it to chip with from the side of the green.
Yes, you may do so, the key distinction that you have made in the question is the ball 'out' of the bunker. If the ball is still in the bunker you would be penalised two shots for grounding a club in a hazard. If the ball is no longer in the bunker you are in you may ground the club, but be aware, there is really no need to.
Yes you can move the ball a club length to the side
The best golf club for making a long drive down the fairway is simply known as a "driver". These types of clubs may also be called "long drive" golf clubs. Occasionally, the long drive club will simply be called an "LD" club.
No, you are not allowed to ground your club in the bunker unless you are taking the actual stroke. If you ground the club in a practice swing or prior to taking the stroke it is a two shot penalty.