the runner does when the call is on the D
No - this is a "Sandlot" rule. In pickup games, with no umpire, you just say on a close play, the call goes to the runner. In real life, the umpire has to make the call based on how he sees it.
yes. if the runner is on the inner (left side of chalk if you are the runner) part of the base path.
The runner is safe as long as the runner touches the base and is not tagged out. An out can only be recorded if the fielder has possession of the baseball the whole time through a play.
If the runner kicks a batted ball, the runner is out. If the ball had been touched by a fielder first, the runner is not out and can continue.
A runner can out run the snake of course - but it is a close call if the runner can jab as quickly as a rattler can strike.
In baseball "advance the runner" is a term used to say get a runner on base to move forward to another base.
If the defense throws it to first and the umpire makes the call, the runner is out, but if the ump does not make the call an appeal must be made to determine the situation of the runner.
No runner is allowed to be touched while running the bases. Only a bad umpire would enforce this rule on a high five. There is no rule that prohibits touching a runner, but there is a rule prohibiting physically assisting a runner.