You get a free drop, no penalty
Take it out of the hole and take a one shot penalty and place the ball no closer to the pin and in line with the hole.
If you are on the green putting, and your ball strikes the pin in the hole or the ball is holed you receive a two shot penalty (Stroke play) and you play the ball as it lies. Or loss of hole in matchplay.
Where do you play golf? The wild west. If a ball at rest is moved by the tumble weed, there is no penalty and the ball must be replaced. If the ball is moving and the tumble weed hits it, there is again no penalty but you must play the ball as it lies.
In stroke play, two stroke penalty and then you must play your ball. In matchplay it is loss of the hole.
Hole out is simply finishing a hole of golf, obviously by putting the ball in the hole.
Two shot penalty. You also have to go back and correct your mistake before you tee off on the next hole, or you will be disqualified.
I am assuming you mean when you are on the green. In which case it is a two shot penalty and you play the ball as it lies.
A single swing that lands the ball into a golf hole. Therefore hole in one.
its a hole about the size of a golf ball
The ball must be removed from the hole and placed in its previous spot. No penalty.
The object of golf is to get a golf ball in a hole in as few of strokes as possible.