No, only if the player holding it steps out of bounds.
A fumble is down when the recovering player is down or when the ball goes out of bounds...so yes, if the ball is fumbled forward and recovered by the offense, or goes out of bounds, past the first down marker, it is a first down. The exception is on fourth down. In the NFL, only the player who fumbled the ball can advance it on fourth down.
If a player who was out of bounds steps back in and downs the ball, it would be a touchback, and the ball would be spotted on the 20-yard-line. However, that player would get penalized for illegal participation, bringing the ball back some.
yes as long as all of your body is in bounds before you touch the ball again
no they do not their team just receives possession
No, a timeout can not be called until the player with the ball is down or out of bounds.
If his knee touches inbounds, he is considered tackled in the field of play, regardless if the the ball ends up out of bounds. The clock will continue to run
Only if it stays there. If it comes down inside the lines, then it's still in play. If the ball touches the very top of the backboard it is considered and declared out of bounds to most referees.
NFL: Only if he is out of bounds. However, a player can proclaim himself down to an official, even if the player isn't touched. The official will then consider the ball dead and end the play. High School and college: Yes, it is down, play is whistled dead.
Yes but it goes to the team whom may have dropped the ball in the first place. The down starts where the original line of scrimmage.
There is no "force out" in college football. Only one foot is required in bounds for a completed catch, unless a receiver's normal progression to the ground is interrupted by a defensive player (for example, if a receiver was hauled out of bounds when he would have landed in bounds).