Probably on US bases with schools, but I never saw a European play football when I lived there.
Because you play it with your foot that's why it's known as football outside of USA.
They can and do. Whole leagues are for women only. This assumes you are not from the US, though, where football - meaning American football there - is frowned upon as a female's game; association football is very popular among females there instead.
There is no American Football around the world because it is not popular outside the US
Flag football was first started by the US military in the 1940s. In the 1950s, recreational leagues were started by some of the same people who played the game while in the service.
Some Leagues are the USAG and C.A.R.A gymnastics. They are the leagues that are known in Colorado.
There 12 leagues, all in Pennsylvania.
The Negro leagues were US professional baseball leagues. The term is usually used to include 7 leagues, also called "Negro Major Leagues" which began in 1920.
There are many soccer leagues in the US. Anybody can play soccer no matter where they are or how old they are. There are club teams for children and adult leagues for adults. You just have to search around and find out what leagues are in you area.