Yes, the king can capture a pawn.
Yes , a pawn can capture the King given the proper support .
No, a pawn can not check or checkmate a king.
Pawn's can't capture forward, only diagonal. Yes, a pawn that reaches the eighth rank will be promoted if it reached it by capturing another piece.
A pawn captures another piece by moving diagonally one square forward to the square where the enemy piece is located. The pawn cannot capture a piece that is directly in front of it. Another way a pawn captures is under a special rule which applies only to another pawn. If White has a pawn on the 5th rank and Black moves a pawn one file over two spaces from the 7th rank to the 5th rank, the White pawn may capture the Black pawn even though the black pawn is now right beside it by moving one square diagonally forward right behind the Black pawn. This is called capturing "en passant"
A pawn can capture an enemy pawn by En Passant ~ see related link below .
The pawn can checkmate the king but only in conjunction with at least one other piece to protect the pawn from capture by the king and at least one enemy piece placed near the king so that it cuts off any escape avenues the king would have. If a pawn places a king in check and the king is completely surrounded by his own pieces in such a way that its only move would be capture the pawn and if no enemy piece is placed so that it can capture that pawn and if the pawn is protected from capture by one of its own pieces, the pawn has checkmated the king.
Yes , a pawn at d4 can capture a knight at e5 .
No you can't if you do it is called cheating.
Sure. ' My opponent decided to capture my pawn in a game.'
No. The pawn may either capture diagonally one space, or move forward one or two spaces.
It is a term used in chess to refer to a pawn that at first sight appear to be an easy capture. However, if the capture is made it will mean several (estrategical or tactical) complications to the player that captured it, as it was a "poisonous pawn".