Former NFL lineman Deacon Jones invented the term when at the time the NFL didn't track sack stats. If they did it would probably be revealed that Deacon is the all time sack leader. It comes from the fact that SACKING a city is just as devastating to the city as a QB being tackled is to the offense.
When they are five yards behind the line of scrimmage they call that the SHOTGUN formation.
QB (quarterback) instructs his teammates to listen carefully at the line of scrimmage because he may call another play, or his call at the line of scrimmage will be the play.
Sacking the quarterback is not, by definition, roughing the passer. A sack occurs when a defensive player tackles the quarterback when he is behind the line of scrimmage. Defensive players are also credited with a sack when they force a quarterback to run out of bounds while still behind the line of scrimmage. Roughing the Passer is a penalty call. Roughing the Passer occurs when the quarterback is stuck by a defensive player after releasing the ball or when a quarterback is struck in the head/neck region by a defensive player. So a defensive player can be called for roughing the passer while sacking the quarterback if he hits them after the q.b. has released the ball or if he hits the q.b. in the head/neck region during the tackle.
Beck and call
From Wikipedia: "The term quarterback has its origin in Scottish Rugby, wherein backfield players, according to their customary distance behind the forwards, were designated 'quarter back' (i.e. ¼ of the way back), 'halfback', and 'fullback'."
Both. Usually the offensive coordinator or head coach calls the plays, however the Quarterback may call audibles. When there is little time left and the team is behind by a touchdown or less, the Quarterback takes full control.
Some Presidents may call the Super Bowl winning quarterback but not all do.
It is the amount of Home Runs that Cecil Fielder had in his career.