Jackie Robinson, 1962. Also he was the first player ever to be inducted in his first year of eligibility
Ferguson Jenkins in 1991
Ferguson Jenkins was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame by the BBWAA in 1991.
Ty Cobb was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936.
Yes, Jackie Robinson was inducted into the baseball hall of fame in 1962.
You can't really be inducted twice as a player. To answer the spirit of your question though - would a player, say, Ted Williams, be inducted twice is he followed his Hall-of-Fame worthy career by an equally Hallworthy career as a manager? The answer is, no.
Jackie Robinson entered the hall of fame in 1962.
Satchel Paige, inducted in 1971. Prior to Paige ... Jackie Robinson was inducted in 1962 and Roy Campanella was inducted in 1969.