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In the early days of "soccer", reserve players were referred to as substitutes, as is shown in this excerpt from "Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England)" from Sunday 22nd February 1863 - "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes." However, substitutes in the modern sense - players who are brought onto the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player, was relatively unheard of until the second half of the twentieth century. On 11th October 1953, in a World Cup Qualification Match contested between Germany and Saarland, a German player named Horst Eckel became the first substitute under new rules from FIFA which allowed substitutions (previously, injured players would simply leave the field of play and their team would play the rest of the match with fewer players than the opposition, or the player would have to continue to play regardless of the injury, or if it was a goalkeeper who had sustained an arm injury, he would have to play outfield for the rest of the match). The Football League (at the time the highest level of professional Football in England) first permitted substitutions in the 1965/1966 season, although the ruling authorised just one substitution per team, and a substitution could only be used to replace an injured player - not for solely tactical reasons. Starting from the 1967/1968, the regulations were relaxed so that solely tactical substitutions become allowable. This allowed the careers of certain players to really take off (such as David Fairclough of Liverpool F.C., who gained more first-team opportunities thanks to the new substitution regulations). On August 21, 1965, Keith Peacock of Charlton Athetic F.C. became the first substitute used in a Football League match when he replaced the injured goalkeeper Mike Ross eleven minutes into a league match away to Bolton Wanderers F.C.. Archie Gemmill of St. Mirren F.C. was the first substitute to come on in a Scottish professional match, on August 13, 1966 in a League Cup tie against Clyde F.C. when he replaced Jim Clunie after 23 minutes. The first official substitute in a Scottish League match was Paul Conn for Queen's Park F.C. v. Albion Rovers F.C. in a Division 2 match on August 24, 1966. Previously, on January 20, 1917, a player called Morgan came on for the injured Morrison of Partick Thistle F.C. after 5 minutes against Rangers F.C. at Firhill, but this was an isolated case and the Scottish League did not authorise substitutes until 1966. In latter years, the number of substitutes permitted in Football League matches has gradually increased, at present each team is permitted to name five or seven substitutes depending on the country and competition, of which a maximum of three may be used. In the UK, the Premier League increased the number to 5 in 1996, and it was announced that the number available on the bench would be 7 for the 2008-09 season. The Laws of the Game state that "A player may only be substituted during a stoppage in play and with the permission of the referee. The player to be substituted (outgoing player) must have left the field of play before the substitute (incoming player) may enter the field of play; at that point the substitute becomes a player and the person substituted ceases to be a player. The incoming player may only enter the field at the half-way line. Failure to comply with these provisions may be punished by a caution (yellow card)." Furthermore, a player who has been substituted off the pitch cannot be substituted back onto the pitch. Substitutes remain under the jurisdiction of the referee even when they are not on the pitch, and may still be shown yellow and red cards regardless of whether or not they have played any part of the match on the pitch. The default maximum number of substitutions allowable per team is six, although this number may be changed by competition rules, or by an agreement between both teams and the match officials prior to kick-off.

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Q: When were teams allowed substitutes in English soccer?
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