If a foul is committed inside the goal area then it is also inside the penalty area. Any foul normally punishable by a direct free kick that is committed inside the penalty area by the defense is changed to a penalty kick.
It would depend on who committed the foul. A foul committed by a defender, against an attacker, in the penalty area is a penalty kick for the attackers. A foul committed by an attacker, against a defender, in the penalty area is a direct free kick for the defense.
a stronghold area with natural defensive qualities, useful in the defense of a country against invaders.
Zone defense is when you set up each man to play a particular area of the field. Man to man is just that, playing man against man. Zone defense basically calls for each defender to not leave their area, even if a man they happened to be guarding at one moment leaves that area.
Foul refers to direct free kick offences. Any defender committing a foul against an attacker in the area results in a penalty kick. But, an attacker committing a foul against a defender would result in a direct free kick.
If the offense was one of the Indirect Free Kick fouls, then it would be an Indirect Free Kick at the spot. (Or brought out to the top of the Goal Area if inside that.) If the offense was one of the Direct Free Kick fouls, then an Penalty Kick would be awarded.
In basketball, the two types of defense a team mostly plays are called man-to-man and zone. The man-to-man defense is where the responsibility of a player on defense is to guard a player on the offense. In the zone defense, the responsibility of the player on defense is to patrol a specific area, or zone, of the court. Click on the 'Zone Defense' link on this page to read an article to learn more.