No. You can only do it on offense.
they will give you a penalty
You can call a timeout whenever you would like to.
No you can't.
Coaches and quarterbacks can call a timeout on the field during a college football game.
Yes, the assistant can call a timeout, players on the court can also call timeouts.
The coach can call a timeout
10 seconds. In college if they call timeout they get a fresh 10 seconds when the ball in inbounded again. In the NBA they only get what time was left on the clock when timeout was called.
No, the only times where one can call a timeout is when their team has possession of the ball or when there is a dead ball, which means the clock is stopped (out of bounds, foul called, etc.).
yes. but only on a dead ball. You can't call a defensive time out when the ball is in play.
Anytime the team possesing the ball wants to as long as they have time outs left.