In the National Baseball League - the pitcher is not only allowed to bat - he is required to. In the American Baseball League, the pticher does not bat. He was replaced in that capacity many years ago by the "designated hitter".
To give the pitcher a better chance of not getting hit.
"Runs allowed" is the total number of runs that are allowed by a team or pitcher. "Earned runs allowed" are runs for which a pitcher is held accountable. This is covered under Major League Baseball rule 10.16, which is quite lengthy.
There are two leagues in American major league baseball, the American League and the National League. The American League has the designated hitter rule which allows for someone other than the pitcher to bat in the pitcher's place. The pitcher does not bat in the American League. The National League does not have the designated hitter rule. The pitcher does bat in the National League.
No. But there is a similar softball league.
The American League uses the Designated hitter, and the pitcher does not bat as in the National League.
you're only allowed a certain limited amount of conferences on the mound. It varies from league to league, but the general rule of thumb is that you are allowed to go out once an inning. If you go out more than once an inning, you have to take the pitcher out. If you go out a fourth time within the same game then you have to take that pitcher out.