It occurs simultaneously with the action force.
No. But this rule does not come into effect until AFTER the force out at first base occurs. In other words, until that force out at first happens, the runner who was on first must advance. But AFTER the force out occurs, the runner who was on first need not do so. If a first baseman steps on first and then immediately fires to second base, the person covering second base must tag out the runner coming towards second base. I've seen twenty-year veterans of MLB forget this -- they take the throw from the first baseman after a force out at first base, step on second base, and then walk away without tagging the runner.
IF you mean there are 2 outs then the answer is no, if the out is a force out then the run doesn't count even if the runner touched home before the ball reached the force out bag.
The action and reaction forces occur at the same time.
From Newton's second law, the body accelerates in the direction of the net force.
Newton's Second Lawe is Force F=ma. The Second Law becomes the First law if Force is zero, 0=ma. The First Law is there is no change in motion or velocity if there is no force. No force , no acceleration, no acceleration no change in motion.
Yes it would still be a force play at 2nd base, since the runner going from 1st to 2nd is required to advance (since the runner going to first, has not been put out yet)
the reaction force