A rescue club is very versatile and can be used in a number of situations. You can use it off the tee, you can use it from the fairway instead of a long iron and some people even use it to chip with from the side of the green.
You would use golf club epoxy, it is a very strong two part glue.
A "sand Iron" is a golf club (iron) designed to hit a golf ball out of a sand trap or bunker.
You would have to use a lob wedge, or possibly a 64 degree.
You would use inches.
You should use it just from the edge of the green to chip onto the green. You could use it from about 20-30 yards out as long as you are confident with it and there are no bunkers etc in your way.
You use a club.
Yes, you can use golf range finders while setting a club record.
There are a lot of good golf resources out there that break the game of golf down. Here is a good article that talks about every type of club and when to use it: http://www.totalgolfclubs.com/Articles/a-beginners-guide-to-golf-clubs.html
Wire wool is usually the best thing to use when removing the finish from a golf club.