No the player can not.
the fouled team gets one free throw and keeps the ball.
technical is first
The individual that was fouled, or in the case of a "technical foul", the coach may determine the shooter.
No - once a player has fouled out of the game he/she is disqualified and not permitted to perform any role on the court.
you get fouled out
That depends. If he was intentionally fouled but the player was going for the ball, than no. If the player was not going for the ball, than yes.
you get fouled and the ball goes to the other team
No, players are only granted 6 fouls. If a player commits all six, he is fouled out regardless of whether or not the game goes into overtime.
gets shot by a penis
you get to shoot 1 free throw
Penalties are given in a different way in basketball than in football. Someone who commits a foul will have a foul added to their stats, and then the fouled person will shoot foul shots.