If the penalty is accepted, it is no catch. If the penalty is declined, yes, the pass attempt counts.
There is no rule to forbidd this so yes it is allowed
In college football, the penalty is 15 yards. In the NFL, the penalty is 10 yards.
Penalty pass or Penalty pass/shot, depending on where you are on court.
Pass, rush, yards, interception, fumble, penalty, tackle, helmet, touchdown
Yes faceguarding is a penalty in college football
Player Penalty punt play-off pick-off pass
OPI is a 15yd penalty, against team A. It is penalized 15 yds from the previous spot, and a loss of down.
There is no penalty for that
You get a penalty pass, where the other player who fouled you stands next to you or you if you are in the D, you can have a penalty shot.
There is no evidence that such a penalty exists in any football league currently.
The penalty for a short pass in Netball is a turnover to the opposing team.