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The fairway is the area up the centre of the hole which follows the line of the hole, it is closely mown.
No, the ball you start the hole with is the hole you finish the hole with - unless of course you lose it.
Out of bounds is the strictest rule in golf, and often the harshest. You have to replay the ball from the exact same place you just played that shot from. So if you are on the tee and hit one out of bounds, you tee it up again and you are now playing your third shot off the tee (This includes the one shot penalty). If you are in the fairway and hit it out of bounds, you replay it from as close as possible to where the original was hit from.
You need to know where the out of bounds stake is defining as out of bounds. If this hole is left of the OB then yes, it is out of bounds. If it came back to the right, it sounds like it was inbounds.
The three main ones are the tee, fairway and green.
What you are referring to would be known as a dog leg, this refers to the entire lay out of the hole.
You are entitled to a free drop if the ball is plugged in the fairway or closely mown area, that is apron, fringe etc, (nearest point of relief, no nearer the hole). If the ball is plugged in the rough, there is no relief.
Usually, although for a Par 3 hole, it may be quite short as the idea is to get "on" in one and two putt.
When the layout of a hole curves to the left or to the right.
No. The ball you start a hole with is the ball you must finish the hole with. You can change to a different ball only prior to the T box.
Clutch disc? If this is what you are asking, it looks like a plate with an abrasive surface on both sides. In the center is a "splined" hole. Hope this helps
You can drill a hole in the side of anything with the right drill.