Moved on from my previous answer - Darren Clarke, which was correct at the time of writing - Updated again to Rory McllRoy in 2014.
Tony Jacklin in 1970 was the last british golfer to win the US Open.
Paul Casey won the Shell Houston Open in April this year
Padraig Harrington won the 2008 USPGA Championship. This was the last time an Irish man won a major. He also won the 2007 and 2008 Open Championship.
Nick Faldo in 1996.
Nick Faldo 1992 at Muirfield.
The Nationwide Tour would be the tour before the PGA Tour, the top 25 on the Nationwide tour at the end of the season win PGA Tour cards.
Yes, this was added to the exemptions gained with a PGA Tour win, they do get a Masters invite.
A tour pro keeps his card if he places in the top 125 money-winners on the PGA Tour
John Daly and Tiger Woods
The last Australian winner was Adam Scott. He won the Masters Tournament in 2013. It was also the first time an Australian won the Masters.
Yes, they do. A major championship win carries a 5 year exemption on the PGA Tour, and the player may accept this. However, due to the huge amounts of money earned on the PGA Tour they will most likely turn pro, as amateurs can not collect winnings.
There is no such thing as starting wages, you win the amount of money awarded to your finish.