Rule changed to dropping at arm's length in 1984.
It's simple no closer to the hole. Before you had to face the hole and drop over your shoulder again no closer to the hole. Makes no difference as long as the drop is no closer to the hole and the ball is droped from shoulder height.
Depends upon how much force is given when hit, kicked or thrown. The table tennis ball however has no mass to it at all, so it would travel the least distance no matter how much force was given at point of launch. A Golf ball can travel some 350 yards with the right angle and pro golfer.
You use a shoulder pass when you are passing a further distance. Other wise, you use a chest pass for short distances, a lob pass when you want the ball to get over the player whom is defending you and a bounce pass for an escape.
100oF? No, never.