Answeryes the great auk is extinct
Since an eagle is bigger than a birdie I believe that's how it got its name. Even though an eagle is a lower score it is a much more valuable score.
No, double eagle is the name of the brand that makes it.
Another name for a golf caddie is looper. It is come from making a loop around the golf course. This term can be heard in the movie Caddyshack.
A whiff. No other name for it really.
a bunker or a hazard.