It is called an eagle; if you happened to get a 2 on a par 5 that's called an albatross!
It is called a double eagle or a hole in one.
It is a golf term. It means to score three under par on a hole. If your par is four, you would have to get a hole in one to score a double eagle. If your par is five, you would score 2. This term is an outdated one, and is rarely used because it is rarely applicable.
Four (4) same as usual one under par
Every hole has a par rating - usually 3, 4 or 5. One under means one less than this. So on a par 4 hole a score of 3 is one under par. This is called a birdie.
Yes the PGA record for lowest score in one round is 13 under or a score of 59.
A birdie is a golf score. Each hole has a par score. If you do it in one less it is called a birdie.
If the player does not finish the hole, they must put down a ding, or simply score through the box. If the 33 handicapper does not score on SI holes 16-18 this would be 3 over par, 2 over par would get them one point etc.