In precise usage, a foul is one of the direct free kick offenses that is performed by a player, against an opponent, on the field, and during active play.
Indirect free kick offenses are not referred to as fouls. Deliberate handling, a direct free kick offense, is also not usually referred to as a foul since it is not against an opponent.
A direct free kick or a penalty kick almost always follows a foul.
A foul is an offense that is normally punishable by a direct free kick, is committed against an opponent, on the field, and during active play.
In the NFL, the team receiving a punt has the opportunity to kick a field goal on the play immediately after a fair catch, even if there is no time remaining on the clock. The team attempting the free kick must either drop kick the ball or have a player holding the ball like on a 'regular' field goal attempt. A kicking tee is not allowed. The defensive team must be positioned a minimum of 10 yards from the line of scrimmage at the time of the kick. If the kicked ball goes through the uprights, it is considered a field goal and three points are awarded to the kicking team. If the attempt is no good, the defensive team is awarded the ball at the spot of the kick unless the defensive team attempts to return the kick. The free kick after fair catch play is rarely seen and is always done at the end of a half. There is no free kick after fair catch rule in college ball.
The kick that often follows a foul can be referred to in different ways depending on the severity of the foul. It is mainly called the "Free Kick" but can also be refeerred to as an "Indirect Free Kick" a "Direct Free Kick" or a "Penalty Kick". To help you understand, look up "FIFA Laws of the Game".
It is a foul, and a direct free kick is given.
Foul refers to a direct free kick offence. No cards have to be shown for an offence punishable by a direct free kick.
A direct free kick or a penalty kick depending on where the foul occurred.
A foul that resulted in a penalty kick.
Foul refers to direct free kick offences. Any defender committing a foul against an attacker in the area results in a penalty kick. But, an attacker committing a foul against a defender would result in a direct free kick.