An albatross is a term for three under par and is also called a double eagle. There is currently no golf term for a double albatross.
No, double eagle is the name of the brand that makes it.
Since an eagle is bigger than a birdie I believe that's how it got its name. Even though an eagle is a lower score it is a much more valuable score.
A double. It doesn't really have another name.
Trap or hazard