Yes, roughing the passer is a penalty. It calls for a 15 yard penalty on the offending team.
Roughing the passer
Face mask, roughing the passer, roughing the kicker, pass interference, clipping...
15 yards for illegally kicking a loose ball.
Yes, if the ball is deflected there can be no roughing/running into the kicker penalty. Also, if the punter drops the snap there can be no penalty.
15 yard penalty and an automatic first down
15 yard penalty
The foul is called "roughing the passer" and the penalty is 15 yards against the defense.
1938 was when roughing the passer rule was enacted in the NFL.
If the quarterback were to drop kick he would become a kicker and not a quarterback. The roughing the quarterback penalty would change to roughing the kicker.