A good definition of “dimension” is essential to physics. Dimension is the most elementary characteristic of both physical matter existence and non-material Aether existence. From the dimensions of length, frequency, mass, charge, and spherical geometry come Aether, primary angular momentum, and all other units of dimension.

The physical structure of the Universe that we recognize originates from Aether units and primary angular momentum. Other units make up the Universe, such as velocity, magnetic flux, resistance, potential, flow, pressure and many more. We may not be aware of it, but each one of these units is a type of reality in itself. Units are not just abstract concepts; they are a significant foundation of the physical world. It is important to understand each type of physical existence as clearly as possible. To do this we must understand the type of existence that precedes the level we are examining.

Dimension is an unfamiliar concept to ponder; yet like our heartbeat it undergirds our very existence. We are accustomed to thinking that reality is the physical world we perceive. However, if the world we perceive is real, then the molecules and atoms that make up the world must be more real, having pre-existed the more complex structures. In addition, the onta that make up the atoms must be yet more real. Moreover, as we proceed to the most fundamental existence of dimension we must approach even closer the Source of reality.

Likewise, as we progress in structure from dimensions to the reality we perceive, the structures themselves become more complicated and less like their Source, while founded on the previous levels all the same. For these reasons, as we pursue an understanding of reality at the level of dimension, the terminology must be clear.

## Definition of Dimension

#### Dimension - (Common Definition)

In physics, dimensions is an expression of the character of a derived quantity in relation to fundamental quantities, without regard for its numerical value. In any system of measurement, such as the metric system, certain quantities are considered fundamental, and all others are considered to be derived from them. Systems in which length \(L\), time \(T\), and mass \(M\) are taken as fundamental quantities are called absolute systems. In an absolute system force is a derived quantity whose dimensions are defined by Newton's second law of motion as \(ML/{T^2}\), in terms of the fundamental quantities. Pressure (force per unit area) then has dimensions \(ML/{T^2}\); work or energy (force times distance) has dimensions \(M{L^2}/{T^2}\); and power (energy per unit time) has dimensions \(M{L^2}/{T^3}\). Additional fundamental quantities are also defined, such as electric charge and luminous intensity. The expression of any particular quantity in terms of fundamental quantities is known as dimensional analysis and often provides physical insight into the results of a mathematical calculation[1].

#### Dimension – (Aether Physics Model Definition)

According to the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of discrete natural units (quanta) are length, frequency, mass, charge, and spherical geometry. Dimension is the fundamental attribute of measurement, but is not itself measurable. Absolute dimension is a quality of reality seemingly arising from the ultimate Source of all existence. When quantity is associated with dimension, then the two together form a measurement.

Through the lack of coherent understanding of dimensions and units, it has become standard practice to view measurements as units. For example, the kilogram defines a unit of mass[2]. It would be far more coherent if the kilogram defined a measurement of mass, with the definition of “unit” reserved for compound dimensions (units are defined in chapter 6). It is not so much that the choice of words is important, but that the concepts of measurements and units are quite different from one another. Using the same word to define two different concepts, which often appear in the same sentence or paragraph, easily leads to confusion.

There are fewer dimensions at the quantum level than in the macro world. Like force, matter, and environment, dimensions increase in complexity as the orders of reality become more complex. Color, flavor, and texture are examples of complex dimensions as perceived at the level of human beings.

The physical world, at the quantum level, follows a very simple and easy to understand set of rules. It is much easier to understand quantum physics through the Aether Physics Model than the physics of auto mechanics or bread making because the rules are so precise and the dimensions are so few. However, the key to understanding the quantum level of existence lies in more precise and simple definitions of the terms “dimension,” “measurement,” and “unit.”

There are four commonly known, fundamental dimensions in the MKS system of measurement: mass, charge, length, and frequency. In our macro frame of reference, we prefer to speak of frequency in terms of its reciprocal of time. Also at the quantum level there is a fifth type of dimension, spherical geometry, as explained shortly.

It is from the fundamental dimensions that units are constructed. The unit of area is equal to the length dimension squared. The unit of volume is equal to the length dimension cubed. Volume then has three dimensions of length.

\[{\lambda _C}^3 = volm \tag{5.1}\]

However, there are also three dimensions in a unit of momentum (mass times length times frequency).

\[{m_e} \cdot {\lambda _C} \cdot {F_q} = momt \tag{5.2}\]

So it is more accurate to call “3D” objects “volumetric” than three-dimensional. Technically, an object with three dimensions of length is three dimensional, but three-dimensions need not mean “three dimensions of length.”

### Misconceptions of Mass

In a weightless environment, devoid of noticeable gravitational effects, what happens to mass? Does mass change to zero? No. When mass is near a large planet, does mass become greater? No. When an object with mass is accelerated to near the speed of light, does mass increase? No.

Nothing ever happens to mass. There is nothing to happen to. Mass is merely a dimension. Of itself, it has no material existence, although it is one of the defining qualities of material objects.

There is mass in resistance. There is mass in potential. There is mass in energy. There is mass in angular momentum. It is all the same mass, but manifested differently. It might help to realize that there is time in units too. There is time in resistance, there is time in potential, there is time in energy, and there is time in angular momentum. You can perceive time as change, but you cannot isolate time from a unit. Similarly, you can perceive mass as inertia and length as distance, but you cannot separate the dimensions of mass and length from units. In the same way, you cannot remove the bricks from a brick building without also removing the building.

Once we stop thinking of mass as equal to matter, and realize that mass is neither physical nor is it something convertible, then it becomes easier to see what mass really is and how mass “behaves.” How it behaves is not the same as the “is-ness” of mass. You cannot “put your hands” on mass. You cannot see mass. You cannot truly weigh mass (but you can weigh matter that has mass). You cannot make mass turn into energy.

The whole issue about converting energy from mass clearly reveals itself when we realize the indestructible and unchangeable nature of dimensions. You cannot convert mass, length, time, or charge. They are absolutes. Mass is always mass. Once again, and it will be repeated often, mass (inertia) is only a dimension.

### E does not equal m

Energy is a unit. Mass is a dimension. Energy is composed of the dimensions of mass times length squared times frequency squared.

\[E = M \cdot {L^2} \cdot {F^2} \tag{5.3}\]

Mass is not converted to energy and energy is not converted to mass. Mass is merely a dimension from which the units are constructed. This is repetitive, but understanding mass as merely a dimension is perhaps the greatest intellectual physics challenge for most people coming out of the 20th Century.

We often refer to nuclear reactions on the Sun, nuclear power plants, and nuclear bombs as examples of mass to energy conversion. In the nuclear power plants the United States has been operating for 60 years, a high degree of precision applies to the measured amount of energy and material mass passed through the reactor. And yet, there is not one report available anywhere (that this writer was able to obtain) that presents the data from a nuclear power plant and shows that the mass of the fuel was exactly converted to energy according to \(E = m{c^2}\). One would think that to prove Special Relativity Theory, the data from a precisely monitored nuclear power plant would provide an abundance of evidence. Nevertheless, such data apparently does not exist.

In fact, there is evidence to suggest that more energy comes out of a nuclear power plant than the mass of fuel that goes in. A Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor once operated for 25 years and produced more fuel in its byproducts than it consumed during its operation[3]. A violation of energy conservation seems to result, therefore a government employee or academic will not admit this. In practice, the scientific establishment forbids the suggestion of any violation of the energy conservation law even if the data suggest it. However, the Aether Physics Model shows that there is no violation of energy conservation, as the extra energy is angular momentum of dark matter converting to photons through the Casimir effect.

When it comes down to truth, mass cannot be converted to energy because mass is a dimension at one level of reality, and energy is a unit made up of dimensions at a different level of reality. Any theory based on the assumption that a dimension of mass converts to a unit of energy has no foundation in the Aether Physics Model.

Just as Einstein did not attempt to prove the Aether as non-existent when he presented his Special Relativity Theory, it is not necessary to prove Special Relativity Theory right or wrong while presenting a mathematically correct theory of the Aether. The Aether theory presented in this book stands on its own and has no obligation whatsoever, to support or refute Special Relativity Theory. According to the foundation principles of the Aether Physics Model, the mass/energy equivalence principle of Special Relativity Theory is a non-sequitur.

## Nature of Dimensions

What causes a dimension to come into existence? Why would there be such absolute dimensions as mass, charge, length, frequency, or curved geometry? Contemplating the nature and origin of dimensions requires an ability to “see beyond” both non-material and material existence. Dimensions are truly miracles of physics.

The esotericism continues when we contemplate the interaction of dimensions. Why should mass times length times frequency equal a unit of momentum?

\[M \cdot L \cdot F = {\rm{Momentum}} \tag{5.4}\]

The interaction of dimensions to form units is merely an empirical observation; there is presently no known explanation as to why dimensions should produce units.

Non-material units such as force have dimensions, and so does the primary angular momentum that ultimately composes physical matter. There must be something about the reality of absolute dimensions, which pre-exists both physical matter and non-material Aether existence. Science has traditionally ignored the source of absolute dimension, taking the origin of dimensions for granted. Some scientists are even so bold as to emphatically state that humans created dimensions as a means to understanding physics. If we are to understand the Source of our existence, then we must understand the foundation of our existence, as it is, and not pretend that material reality has no metaphysical foundation.

Contemplating the level of reality where physical matter and non-material Aether appear as units of dimensions, and directing our awareness toward a more primary existence, we might experience a sense of floating. There is no-thing left to observe, yet logic tells us that some unnamed knowledge of a greater reality exists there. From this unnamed knowledge emerged dimensions, units, atoms, molecules and ultimately the world we experience. Additionally, as we bring our awareness back to our present situation, we realize that everything we experience ultimately develops from that unnamed knowledge. At a very fundamental level, we can realize a link between the knowledge of greater reality and our current situation.

There is nothing wrong or harmful about science admitting the existence of God or our relationship to God, especially when that is what the data and theory present. The closer one approaches the most fundamental levels of existence, the closer one approaches the Source of all Creation.

If in our mind we look toward the Source of dimensions, we drift toward a simpler and more unified existence. However, if in our mind we look from the various manifestations of dimensions, toward the units constructed from dimensions, the atoms constructed from units, the molecules constructed from atoms, and their macro structures, we find complexity.

Through dimensions, we fracture our perception of existence into myriad pieces, rearranging reality in a way that seemingly adds to the depth of our experience. On the other hand, because there are so many different pieces to comprehend, and our mind is only capable of one focus at a time, the world ends up becoming shallower in our perception. The more detail we identify, the less we can see at a given time. This is not to say that there is something inherently wrong about studying the complex world. The purpose of acknowledging a single, non-material source for physical existence in science is to realize that it is okay to study the path to a simpler reality, as well.

Dimensions also have a reciprocal quality. For example, the reciprocal of time is frequency. Time and frequency are related, but they are also two distinct manifestations of a given dimension.

## Linear and Distributed

Along with dimensions, there is another important observation concerning the primary state of existence. There is both a linear and distributed aspect. For example, length can be linear (a line) and distributed (a surface). Similarly, other dimensions and their reciprocals have both linear and distributed aspects.

However, it would appear that mass is specifically a linear dimension, and charge is specifically a distributed dimension. There is a constant mass to strong charge ratio for all existence, which indicates that mass and strong charge are two aspects of the same thing. Mass is the linear view of this “thing” and charge is the distributed view. This is easy to visualize by using the analogy of a sheet of paper. Charge would be the view of the paper looking at is surface, mass would be the view of the paper looking at its edge.

Furthermore, dimensions govern by math, which also has both linear and distributed aspects. Addition is a linear operator in the positive direction, while subtraction is a linear operator in the negative direction. Multiplication is distributed addition, and division is distributed subtraction.

## Length and Reciprocal Length

Length is the dimension that measures distance when given a quantity. Because length is something we think about often as we walk, drive, and generally function in the world, it is easy for most people to understand. The reciprocal of length is the measurement of repeating curved lengths. We call the repeating curved lengths a wave number. The wave number is different from the wavelength. A wavelength defines as the distance between two consecutive common features of a wave (peak to peak, or trough to trough for example). The wave number is the reciprocal of the wavelength.

Just as frequency is cycles per time, wave number is cycles per length. A bicycle wheel with a certain radius appears as having a certain wave number for a given distance. Change the radius of the wheel (its amplitude) and the wave number will change accordingly. In general, if the wave number increases, then the amplitude decreases, although this is not a strict rule since other factors can affect the amplitude of a wave. The unit of wave number in the MKS system of units is cycles per meter.

### Single Dimension Length

When the dimension of length denotes a quantity, then we have a measurement for distance. The single dimension of length represents as a line. Although a ruler generally has four edges plus a top and bottom totaling about 12 edges with length, we are only concerned with a single edge of the ruler, which is a graduated line. To clarify the concept of length as dimension we could say that a measurement with length dimension measures distance. It would be better to avoid saying that we are “measuring length.”

Because space-time as we perceive it is a direct result of the Aether, length and time are inseparable. Since length and time in the Aether are inseparable, the speed of light is constant. The speed of light is equal to the quantum distance times the quantum frequency. At the quantum level, length can be expressed in terms of frequency (reciprocal time) just as frequency can be expressed in terms of length (usually called “wavelength”).

### Distributed Dimension Length

Length in two dimensions is distributed. Specifically, the lengths are at right angles to each other. We normally call distributed length an area. The physical manifestation of an area is a surface. A plane is a special case of a distributed area that occurs on a flat surface. However, distributed area can also occur on curved surfaces such as toroids and spheres. Even though a surface curves, the length dimensions are still at right angles to each other.

### Three Dimensional Length

We often refer to three dimensions of length as “three dimensional.” As with distributed length, all three length dimensions are at right angles to each other. We call these three right-angled length dimensions a volume. The physical manifestation of a volume is space.

Three dimensions of length can also be two length dimensions at a right angle over a curved surface with the third length dimension extending to another curved surface. In other words, we would normally think of the third dimension of length as extending inward to the center of the sphere or toroid (as in a solid), but at quantum levels the third dimension of length extends outward from the surface, and between two identical toroids. For example, the double cardioid unit has the appearance of two adjacent cardioids separated by a distance. An instance of this double cardioid geometry manifests in the binding mechanics between onta.

Quantum matter has only two dimensions of length, that is, it only has surface characteristics. There is no solid quantum matter. Distance between surfaces provides the third dimension of length resulting in the appearance of “solid matter” as we perceive it at the macro level of existence.

## Time and Reciprocal Time

When the dimension of time denotes a quantity, it becomes a measurement of intervals. We are accustomed to viewing time as the normal manifestation of the time dimension, with frequency as its reciprocal. At the quantum level, it appears to be just the opposite.

We perceive time as normal and frequency as the reciprocal because onta move only in the forward dimension of time. In reality, the onta are acting like “time diodes.” What we really see is a pulsed forward motion of time, not unlike a pulsed DC current produced by a rectified AC current. Since all subatomic matter pulses to the same rhythm in forward time, time appears linear to our perception.

While visualizing forward and backward time, it is possible to see how time and space curve so that distributed time appears spherical and space appears as a loxodrome over the surface of spherical distributed frequency. Once again, this geometry can only be seen from beyond the material world (such as through visualization in meditation). When the material world is viewed from within the material world, i.e., from the body’s senses, we are viewing from half-spin perspective and can see only three dimensions of space and one dimension of pulsed, linear time (normally called 4D reality).

Usually frequency represents as a sine wave drawn on a flat surface (such as the surface of paper or a computer screen). This is just an artifact of the representation of frequency as a line. Frequency at the quantum level is not the up and down line we see in a cross section of a wave on the surface of a fluid. Quantum frequency is strictly an artifact of time dimension, not length dimension.

Think of it this way. Length has two directions. There is length extending in one direction, and if the point of reference turns 180 degrees, length has a second direction. Similarly, frequency has two directions. There is time toward the future, and time toward the past. However, frequency, unlike length, is dynamic. Therefore, frequency is circular in that it constantly moves with a certain spin toward the future and then curves around toward the past, and curves around toward the future, etc. In reality, there is no future or past, only the present. Nevertheless, there is the illusion of moving toward the future because our physical world arises from matter that cannot “see” the backward time direction.

This in no way prevents the forward time direction from exhibiting apparent changes totally within the context of forward time. A swinging pendulum alternates between two directions. This alternation of direction manifests as a variable velocity. The variable velocity is a result of the changing time dimension within the velocity of the pendulum and is not the result of the quantum time dimension of the onta from which the pendulum constructs.

So although frequency can be represented by a line on a surface (such as a graph) for systems occurring within the forward-pulsed, linear time dimension, the frequency of forward and backward time cannot be accurately depicted on paper. Even so, for conveying the concept of forward and backward time, we will attempt it in our drawings.

### Single Dimension Time

Single dimension time is linear time. We quantify linear time with clocks, calendars, and similar devices. Duration is associated with growth and decay, and determines the boundaries of birth and death. For example, a tree begins life at a specific time, duration marks the tree’s growth and decay, and it dies at a specific time. All physical objects (and the concepts about the physical objects) appear to come into existence at a specific moment, to have a period of growth and decay, and then to cease to exist at a specific moment.

Regarding measurements of time it would enhance our understanding to speak rather of “interval,” “duration,” “moment,” and similar references to time measurement, reserving “time” as a term for “time as dimension” when possible.

### Frequency

The reciprocal of time is frequency. Single dimension frequency curves. We measure frequency as cycles per time. When frequency manifests in a graph, it usually depicts as a circle or a sine wave. The continuous sine wave depiction (like a snake) is merely an artifact of convenience to show the various cycles without overlapping them. In reality, quantum frequency cycles forward and then cycles backward in a circular “path.”

It is helpful to realize that there are various qualities for which frequency is measured. For example, a radio wave’s frequency is a measurement of alternating electromagnetic potentials. A sound wave’s frequency is the measurement of alternating molecular pressures. These examples of frequency are not frequencies of forward and backward time, but of increasing and decreasing potentials and pressures.

At the quantum level, length and frequency are not separate. Each is an aspect of the same quantum velocity. Length in its first two dimensions curves. The first dimension of curved length comes from the ligamen circulatus. The second curved length comes from the direction the ligamen circulatus moves about the spherical resonance of frequency squared. Together the two curves produce the small and large radius of the onta as shown in the image below.

As noted in the discussion of single dimension length, quantum length and quantum frequency (reciprocal time) are different perspectives of the same entity. Length and frequency unite as evidenced by the constant speed of photons and the Aether unit geometry. At the quantum level, length expresses in terms of frequency, and frequency expresses in terms of length.

The sameness of length and frequency is due to motion (velocity) being a primary characteristic of existence from which the dimensions of length and frequency arise. In the Aether Physics Model, the speed of photons is as much a quality of the Aether as is the Aether’s conductance, permeability, and permittivity.

### Distributed Time

Distributed time appears to be a form of reciprocal resonance. This can be seen from the expression of inductance times capacitance:

\[indc \cdot capc = tim{e^2} \tag{5.5}\]

where time is equal to the quantum time constant \(\left( {time = 8.093 \times {{10}^{ - 21}}sec} \right)\). Single dimension time has a linear characteristic, just as all single dimensions do. Distributed time is the set of all time points generated by two perpendicular time lines. A real world example of distributed time is the orbital period of planets, as in Johannes Kepler’s third law:[4]

\[{T^2} = \frac{{4{\pi ^2}}}{{GM}}{a^3} \tag{5.6}\]

where T is time, G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of a large body, and a is the semi major axis of an elliptical orbit or radius of a circular orbit. Using quantum measurement analysis, we see that the \({4{\pi ^2}}\) term, although empirically derived, is anomalous.

\[{T_q}^2 = \frac{1}{{G \cdot {m_a}}}{\lambda _C}^3 \tag{5.7}\]

### Distributed Frequency

Distributed frequency is similarly structured. The equation for determining the resonance of a tank circuit where the potential is highest is:

\[\frac{1}{{2\pi \sqrt {LC} }} = F \tag{5.8}\]

and this is the same as:

\[{F^2} = \frac{1}{{4{\pi ^2}LC}} \tag{5.9}\]

Frequency squared is thus resonance.

At the quantum level, dynamic distributed frequency has two components, the forward/backward frequency dimension, and the right/left spin-direction frequency dimension. As the LC follows the spin position path, it exists in not only forward/backward time, but also right/left spin. The combination of these two quantum frequencies produces quantum resonance.

Frequency squared appears in the double cardioid constant, rmfd constant, Newton gravitational constant, and many others. The double cardioid constant appears to be the quantum constant of “space-time.” Space-time10 is a term representing three dimensions of length and one dimension of time. However, the Aether Physics Model shows that there are actually three dimensions of length and two dimensions of dynamic frequency. If frequency squared is truly a resonance, then five-dimensional “space-time” should really define as “space-resonance.”

One might ask, if resonance were spherical in nature, why hasn’t this observation shown up in resonance research? Perhaps it has. In the late 1800s, John Worrell Keely used the mechanical vibration of multiple tuning forks to create ultrasonic frequencies inside spherical containers. By finding the resonance of a given object, such as water, Keely demonstrated the disintegration of the object into its constituent atoms or molecules, or perhaps generated Magnegas as explained by Santilli[5]. Furthermore, modern experiments with high amplitude sound resonance show that the resonant cavities are spherical in geometry.

Another manifestation of frequency squared is the discovery of Fourier and Gabor transforms. By converting the time domain of a given data set into a frequency domain, very useful information obtains for analysis purposes. It seems rather odd that data has to convert from the time domain to the frequency domain in order to obtain this usefulness. It seems more likely that if we measured the data in the frequency domain to begin with, the secondary process of converting the data would not be necessary. Understanding the difference between frequency and resonance would help considerably in devising the proper measuring device. Acquiring data directly and in real time in its proper frequency domain could revolutionize the oscilloscope and provide engineers with unprecedented monitoring equipment.

### Static Frequency

Just as length has two quantum structural dimensions and an implied third dimension between quantum structures, frequency has two dynamic dimensions and an implied third static dimension. The third dimension of frequency is the electrostatic charge.

In the Aether Physics Model, Aether units model with dipoles. The electrostatic charge dipole produces from the dynamic forward/backward time and right/left spin frequencies. The two-spin structure of the Aether is the underlying cause of the dipoles, creating both a positive and negative electrostatic charge.

## Mass and Reciprocal Mass

Mass, given a quantity, is a measurement of inertia. A layperson might think that mass is a measurement of weight, but weight is dependent on the force of gravity.

Mass is one of the dimensions of primary angular momentum, which in turn is the building block of physical matter. We are quite familiar with the way the mass measurement of matter results in the sensation of weight near the surface of the Earth. However, mass is also a dimension in momentum, force, pressure, resistance, potential, magnetic flux, and several other units. It is especially important, since physicists have incorrectly equated mass with energy for the past 100 years, to understand the difference between mass as dimension, mass as measurement, and the various poetic uses of the word “mass.”

In Special Relativity Theory, mass converts to energy as an object approaches the speed of light. If this were true, then instead of having infinite mass as the theory proposes, a spaceship should be massless at the speed of light. However, if the spaceship were massless at the speed of light, then it would have no energy because the mass would be zero. I do not see how physicists could have ignored this simple contradiction for 100 years. No doubt, the die-hard relativists will come out swinging with arguments that there is relativistic mass, which is different from rest mass, or some other such nonsense. Mass is ultimately only a dimension. Mass is not equal to matter. Mass does not rest and mass does not move as an independent entity. There is no such physical “thing” as mass that can be converted to energy, of which energy itself is merely a unit.

Only by playing tricks with words and violating the rules of equalities could mass ever be construed as being equal to energy.

The reciprocal of mass is difficult to describe. One definition of reciprocal mass could be the reciprocating action of a piston. Although with a piston, the mass is actually constant and the velocity is changing along with its direction. Reciprocal mass would suggest that reciprocal action occurs directly at the level of inertia. Perhaps through a curved geometry, inertia oscillates between a positive and negative value.

Within the Newton gravitational constant, the mass associated with the Aether is reciprocal to normal mass. When we take the reciprocal of time, we get frequency, which is a completely different manifestation of time. A dimension and its reciprocal are related, but they are not the same.

The mass associated with the Aether is an enormous \(3.268 \times {10^{15}}kg\). So why do we not perceive such a large mass? Would not our space-time feel very dense and solid? If we contemplate the apparent enormity of the Aether mass compared to the masses of the electron and proton, it becomes apparent that Aether mass must be reciprocal to onta mass. In the gravitational constant, the mass of the Aether is, in fact, reciprocal.

\[G = \frac{{{\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{m_a}}} \tag{5.10}\]

Then, how would we explain the mass of the Aether in Coulomb’s constant?

\[{k_C} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}}{{{e_a}^2}} \tag{5.11}\]

It may be that charge per mass is the actual expression for electromagnetism. In Coulomb’s constant, the dominant charge dimension is then reciprocal. The presence of the Aether mass in the numerator then explains why greater relative forces than mass act on electrostatic and electromagnetic charges.

We can hypothesize that mass associated with the Aether has reciprocal mass compared to the mass of onta. Reciprocal Aether mass would be oscillating between positive and negative inertia and thus have an apparent zero net mass. This reciprocal mass would explain why the Gforce both pulls and pushes, thus generating resonance within the Aether unit.

Therefore, the Gforce is not a physical force of push or pull, but is a different type of force manifestation. Its reciprocal mass nature imparts the ability to push or pull. The use of a bathroom scale illustrates the point. Standing on the scale, we can feel force between our feet and the scale. We normally perceive this force as weight, not gravity. The sensation of weight is not the sensation of gravity, as gravity is not a sensation, but rather it is the ability to impart force between two masses.

Similarly, the Aether mass density, although very large, is not the physical type of mass density we associate with matter. Rather, it is the ability to impart mass density. The same treatment would apply to all Aether related units of dimensions. When we contemplate the nature of “ability,” the implication is that there is a living, dynamic cause involved.

### Single Dimension Mass

Mass is linear and exists only as a single dimension. In the case of onta, whenever two dimensions of mass are present in a unit, it is because the unit is the result of two separate onta interacting with each other.

Because mass is linear, it exists with just one dimension of length when associated with matter. Matter at the subatomic level exists as primary angular momentum. Primary angular momentum is equal to a circular line of mass (ligamen circulatus) spinning a velocity perpendicular to the circle. The angular momentum of the electron is the “quantum of action” also known as Planck’s constant.

The effect of the spinning ligamen circulatus is to scan an area at the quantum frequency. However, there appears to be no direct correspondence between the mass and the length of the ligamen circulatus’ circumference. As will be seen in the section on electron radii (page 181), the ligamen circulatus circumference can shrink or grow as long as the spherical frequency radius of the Aether unit grows or shrinks in such a way as to conserve angular momentum. Regardless of what circumference the ligamen circulatus takes, the mass for that particular onn appears to remain constant.

It is often wondered why gravity is only an attractive force. If the APM concept of the photon is correct, and if it composes of electron angular momentum equally divided between the electron and positron spin positions, then we can attribute the lack of measurable photon mass to neutralized inertial spin parity. Just as reciprocal mass is the oscillation between positive and negative inertial mass, the left-hand spin of the electron portion of the photon inertia counters the right-hand spin of the positron portion of the photon inertia. Even as positive proton charge neutralizes negative electron charge when producing the neutron, the negative inertia portion of photon angular momentum neutralizes the positive inertia portion of angular momentum.

This would imply that matter and anti-matter would experience gravity as a mutual repulsion, rather than a mutual attraction. The electron would repel the positron and we can assume that the proton would repel the anti-proton. We can further assume that the spin positions being only half-full allows for the co-existence of matter and anti-matter in the same Aether unit, as the matter and antimatter will not come into direct contact.

This would further imply that if the distribution of matter and anti-matter is equal throughout the Universe, then not only would anti-matter be annihilated by matter, but it would gravitate away to form an entirely separate anti-matter system. Evidence, which we might interpret as positrons gravitationally repelling from normal matter, appears at the GalacticCenter[6]. Yet, because the gravitational force is considerably weaker than the electromagnetic and electrostatic forces, interstellar collisions between matter and anti-matter do frequently occur and thus a system tends to predominate as toward either matter or antimatter. Only at intergalactic distances are we likely to observe predominantly antimatter systems.

## Charge and Reciprocal Charge

Charge, when given a quantity, is the measure of electricity. The Aether unit donates elementary charge to the onn, while the strong charge of the onn is the product of onn angular momentum times the conductance of the Aether.

Since strong charge results from the ligamen circulatus spinning through Aether at the speed of light (quantum length times quantum frequency), strong charge will always be proportional to the onn mass. Elementary charge will always be a portion imparted by the Aether and therefore the elementary charge of the electron, positron, proton, and anti-proton will always be of the same magnitude.

Since strong charge is the product of angular momentum times conductance, and conductance is a quality of the Aether, this may imply angular momentum can exist outside of the Aether. Indeed, the neutrino appears to be an example of angular momentum existing outside of the Aether and in which strong charge is absent.

### Single Dimension Charge

There is no physical manifestation of single dimension charge, however due to the distributed and curved nature of charge, when charges multiply only the square root of each charge is used (single dimension of charge). For example, in the electrostatic law (Coulomb’s law):

\[{k_C}\frac{{\sqrt {{e^2}} \cdot \sqrt {{e^2}} }}{{{\lambda _C}^2}}\frac{{2\pi }}{\alpha } = forc \tag{5.12}\]

The lack of a single dimension manifestation of charge supports the concept of derived charge. Mass exists as a single dimension. Nevertheless, the cause of distributed strong charge is the scanning of the ligamen circulatus (angular momentum) through the Aether.

The single dimension charge as used in Classical Mechanics is one of the reasons why the Standard Model cannot produce a Unified Force Theory. The use of a single dimension of charge in Classical Mechanics also causes the incorrect relationship between resistance and conductance as well as between capacitance and potential. We explain the correct relationships of these units later.

### Distributed Dimension Charge

All charge is distributed[7]; that is, all charge distributes over a surface. There are two manifestations of distributed charge, namely, electrostatic charge associated with the elementary charge (solid angle of 1), and electromagnetic charge associated with the strong charge (solid angle of \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\)).

The Aether unit donates electrostatic charge to the onn as the ligamen circulatus spins through it. The solid angle geometry of the electrostatic charge comes from the spherical distributed frequency dimensions of the Aether unit (forward/backward time and right/left spin direction).

Electromagnetic charge and the angular momentum of the onn are the same entity, but seen from different perspectives. As the linear ligamen circulatus of the onn spins through the Aether unit, it scans an area. The scanned area represents the electromagnetic charge of the onn. The toroidal geometry of the electromagnetic charge arises from the circular mass moving in a circular path around the spherical frequency dimensions of the Aether unit. Although the electromagnetic charge would look helical to “God’s eyes,” it looks like a cardioid when viewed through our half-spin-onn senses.

All charge dimensions are distributed. In some units, such as resistance, charge appears as \(cou{l^4}\). When charge dimensions appear to the fourth power, the unit involves the interaction of two onta.

## Geometry

The presentation of time and space in terms of curvature implies that curved geometry is inherent to Aether. In the Aether Physics Model, the dimensions of frequency squared support the curved geometry of Aether. In this sense, curved geometry could interpret as a “fifth type of dimension.”

### Spherical Constant

\(4\pi \) appears frequently in the quantum constants and is an essential quantity in quantum physics. \(4\pi \) will appear when the expression on one side of an equation has steradian angle and the expression on the other side has a solid angle of 1. The solid angle of 1 refers to spherical charge and the steradian angle \(\frac{1}{{4\pi }}\) refers to toroidal charge. \(4\pi \) will also appear when referencing the geometrical constant of the unit. The geometrical constant applies to the angular momentum and the solid angle applies to the charge. Both charge and angular momentum share curved geometry, but manifest in distinct dimensions.

\(4\pi \) is a dimension within the Aether unit and appears when we look at the relationships among the constituent constants. \(4\pi \) appears with the permeability, permittivity, inductance, and capacitance units, such as when expressing permeability in quantum measurements:

\[{\mu _0} = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}} \tag{5.13}\]

It also appears as a dimension when expressing permittivity in terms of quantum measurements:

\[{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^3 \cdot {F_q}^2}} \tag{5.14}\]

Similarly, inductance is equal to:

\[indc = \frac{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2}}{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}} \tag{5.15}\]

and capacitance is equal to:

\[capc = \frac{{4\pi \cdot {e_a}^2}}{{{m_a} \cdot {\lambda _C}^2 \cdot {F_q}^2}} \tag{5.16}\]

As mentioned earlier, Charles Coulomb was not aware of the constant that bears his name when he was discovering the force law for electrostatic charge. Through some fortunate event, early physicists developed the cgs system of measurements such that charge expresses entirely in terms of the dimensions of length, frequency, and mass. In the cgs system of measurements, Coulomb’s constant is equal to 1. When we convert the constants of permeability, permittivity, and conductance to cgs units, the importance of \(4\pi \) becomes clearer.

\[{\mu _0} = \frac{{4\pi }}{{{c^2}}} \tag{5.17}\]

\[{\varepsilon _0} = \frac{1}{{4\pi }} \tag{5.18}\]

\[Cd = \frac{c}{{16{\pi ^2}}} \tag{5.19}\]

In cgs units, the \(rmfd\) constant converts to:

\[rmfd = 16{\pi ^2} \tag{5.2}\]

In cgs units, permeability, permittivity, conductance, and rotating magnetic field (Aether unit) expresses solely in terms of the \({4\pi }\) spherical constant and the speed of light, showing that Aether is a function of motion, much as the ancient philosophers taught[8].

Not only is the Aether a function of spherical geometry and the speed of light, but the fact that charge expresses entirely in terms of mass, length, and frequency dimensions shows that charge is indeed a derived dimension. The observation of derived strong charge supports the Aether Physics Model concept that strong charge is equal to angular momentum times Aether conductance.

### \(4\pi \) in Unified Charge Equation

The Unified Charge Equation notates as:

\[{e^2} = {e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 8\pi \alpha \tag{5.21}\]

or

\[\frac{{{e^2}}}{{{e_{emax}}^2 \cdot 8\pi \alpha }} = 1 \tag{5.22}\]

Elementary charge \({\left( {{e^2}} \right)}\) is spherical as it is donated to the onta from the spherical distributed frequency dimensions of Aether, thus the elementary charge has a solid angle of \(1\). Strong charge \({\left( {{e_{emax}}^2} \right)}\) is always a steradian of spherical charge, regardless of the shape the electron angular momentum takes.

The strong charge has half-spin, because the angular momentum that produces strong charge can only move in forward time. And since the elementary charge comes from a 1-spin Aether sphere, 2 must multiply the half-spin strong charge in order to be equal in spin to the elementary charge.

In order to convert strong charge steradian geometry to electrostatic spherical geometry, the strong charge must multiply by \({4\pi }\).

The fine structure constant \(\left( \alpha \right)\) is the proportion by which the strong charge must multiply in order to bring the elementary charge sphere and equivalent strong charge sphere into unity. Therefore, it appears that conservation of charge geometry is another conservation law of physics. (See page 204 for more details about spherical and steradian units).

### Distributed Spherical Constant

The biggest leap toward understanding Aether came when I enlisted the help of Tom Gutman to design MathCAD worksheets to represent the constant of \(16{\pi ^2}\). I could visualize a geometrical progression from \(2\pi \) to \(4\pi \), to \(4{\pi ^2}\), to \(16{\pi ^2}\) and wanted to know what \(16{\pi ^2}\) would look like.

After figuring out the geometry of \(16{\pi ^2}\) the process of discovering the Aether and its equations was intuitively easy. The discoveries came so fast after that that I could not see an end to them, and still cannot.

The distributed spherical constant \(\left( {16{\pi ^2}} \right)\) appears in the quantum Aether unit of rotating magnetic field \(\left( {rmfd} \right)\).

\[4\pi \cdot 4\pi = 16{\pi ^2} \tag{5.23}\]

\[rmfd = 16{\pi ^2} \cdot {k_C} \tag{5.24}\]

The full, 2-spin rotating magnetic field is not just a single magnetic field spinning in one direction. In the five dimensional perspective, it is a bi-directional tubular loxodrome shaped electromagnetic charge tracing first in one time direction, and then in the opposite time direction. In the four-dimensional perspective, the rotating magnetic field would appear as a spinning tubular toroidal, or cardioidal, shaped electromagnetic charge spinning in one time direction (forward time), as we could not see the backward time direction. Our inability to see the backward time direction does not negate its effect or presence.

There are three manifestations of the rotating magnetic field. There is the two-spin manifestation, which is the full Aether unit with the geometrical constant of \({16{\pi ^2}}\). There is the half spin manifestation of a single onn. Then there is the one-spin manifestation of rotating magnetic field, which applies when two onta bind together. One spin rotating magnetic field has a geometrical surface constant equal to the toroidal onn \(\left( {4{\pi ^2}} \right)\) times \(2\), because there are two onta spinning oppositely in a binding:

\[4{\pi ^2} \cdot 2 = 8{\pi ^2} \tag{5.25}\]

Therefore, the one-spin geometrical constant is equal to \(8{\pi ^2}\).

[2] “KILOGRAM abbr. kg, fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris. Copies of this standard are deposited at bureaus of standards throughout the world, and other units of mass are defined in terms of it.” "Kilogram ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[3] “EBR-II is, by definition, a Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). It is cooled with molten sodium metal, its chain reaction is perpetuated with extremely energetic (fast) neutrons, and it was designed with the potential for breeding more fuel than it consumes.” Argonne National Laboratory – West EBR-II: Sixteen Years of Operation (Idaho Falls, ID, Argonne National Laboratory, May 1980) 1

[6] Dermer, C. D. and Skibo, J. G., Annihilation Fountain in the Galactic Center Region (The Astrophysical Journal, 487 :L57–L60, 1997 September 20)

[7] "Above all, Coulomb confirmed by very refined methods the fact already noticed by Gray, that electricity is only situated on the external surface of conductors; and he observed that this also is a consequence of the inverse square law, and can only be true if the latter holds exactly." Philipp Lenard, Great Men of Science: A History of Scientific Progress, trans. H. Stafford Hatfield (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933) 157-8.

[8] "The history of science illustrates continuity nicely with Descartes's plenum, a space where aether particles are always in motion and there are no empty interstices. " Paul Ilie, The Age of Minerva, vol. 2 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995) 29

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- Written by David W. Thomson III