In 1894, the United States Golf Association (USGA) was established to regulate the game in the United States and Mexico.
No. The USGA has a set number of courses which are in rotation.
Based on performances from other tournaments or the performance of last years tournament you get in the tournament for that year for free or for a discount.
A major is one of the bigger tournaments of the year. There is The Masters, The US Open, The Open Championship, and The PGA Championship.
The Masters, US Open, The Open and USPGA Championship they all have to be won in the same calendar year.
I would say he's trying to play in PGA tournaments or the PGA Tour of Australia.