Commonly known as a flop or lob shot.
Approach is a shot that is hit to the green.
In golf a do over is called a mulligan. These are really only used in the US. When a player hits a golf shot, and is unhappy with the result he may re-hit that shot. If they hit their second shot, and it went into the water, they can re-hit their second shot etc.Players usually agree a set number of mulligans per round.
This stands for out of bounds. It is an area of the golf course or off the golf course which is not in play. If you hit your ball out of bounds, you cannot play your next shot from there, you must re-hit your shot from the place you originally played from. There is a one shot penalty for hitting out of bounds.
An air shot.