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In academia, the Black Death refers to the plague of 1347-1353. The Great Fire of London happened in 1666. Although the bubonic plague had sporadic outburst across Europe throughout the following centuries, the actual Black Death and the Great Fire occurred 300 years apart.

The outbreak in London in 1665, the year before the Fire, was known as the Great Plague. It killed an estimated 1/5 of London's population. However, it had peaked by the spring of 1666, and the King returned to the city.

The problem was that in London the old medieval housing was very crowded. This meant that not only were conditions unhygienic, but that an infected person would very quickly pass the disease on to many others.

It is unclear whether this Great Plague was indeed the bubonic plague like the Black Death had been. If it was a virulent disease, it may have been spread by air rather than relying on rats to transmit fleas who would spread the infection by biting people.

The Great Fire destroyed around 13,000 buildings in a very crowded part of the city.

When this area was rebuilt, streets were widened, access to the river was improved (London had fire engines but they had been unsuccessful as they could reach neither the river, nor the fire in its fierce heat), and basic sewage regulations were introduced. Thatched roofs were banned, which would further have reduced the rat population. Houses were rebuilt of brick rather than wood, reducing the fire risk.

These measures would all have improved the general hygiene levels in the city, although there were always outbreaks of various diseases up until modern times. Most of these were spread by water rather than by rats, though. It wasn't until the Great Stink of 1858 that Parliament ordered sewers to be built, and this issue of public hygiene was addressed.

The Great Plague of London was the last major outbreak of what has been assumed to be the Bubonic Plague. The measures taken when rebuilding the city and the death of countless rats would have helped this. However, bear in mind that rats are escape artists, and the fire would not have wiped them all out. This is too simple an explanation.

The plague had already peaked, and across Europe, the great plagues were coming to an end. The Fire certainly helped sanitize London, but it continued to be racked with poverty, poor hygiene and disease right up to modern times.

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Q: Did the fire in London kill the Black Death?
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