Yes you can move the ball a club length to the side
You mark where the ball would lie if it was on the ground, lift it, move the cart and then drop the ball as close to where it would be as if it was on the ground. This is a free drop.
Hitting a golf ball off the fairway results in it coming to rest in a less than desirable place. It could end up in a sand trap, a creek, or in the rough which is the higher cut grass adjacent to the fairway.
Yes, as long as you do not disturb the ball.
No, once the ball is in play you cannot pick it up. The only place you can do this is on the green. However, if winter rules or lift clean and place are in operation you can usually move your ball 6 inches, no nearer the hole.
You are entitled to a free drop if the ball is plugged in the fairway or closely mown area, that is apron, fringe etc, (nearest point of relief, no nearer the hole). If the ball is plugged in the rough, there is no relief.
It just means they have hit the ball into the longer grass at either side of the fairway. Playing out of the rough is a lot harder than playing from the fairway as it is harder to get a good strike on the ball and you won't get as much spin. And you can also catch a flyer which is where the ball flies of the club face and goes a lot farther than expected.
When this happen, There is no relief from a ball embedded in a bunker.
The fairway is the area up the centre of the hole which follows the line of the hole, it is closely mown.
No, the ball you start the hole with is the hole you finish the hole with - unless of course you lose it.
The player who's ball is farthest away from the green hits first, then move to the next players ball in order of distance to the green.BUT... Most courses encourage "ready play" (if you are ready, then hit the ball) in order to speed up play.
If you mean the small peg you stand your ball on before you wack it down the fairway, it's called a tee.
No. The ball you start a hole with is the ball you must finish the hole with. You can change to a different ball only prior to the T box.