A pawn may pass another pawn if there is some tactical or strategical advantage to do so - this is an option exercised at the discretion of the player(s). It only becomes a passed pawn if it has no more enemy pawns to pass by.
Yes, a pawn may pass by an enemy pawn.
Yes a pawn may pass an enemy pawn even though it is being attacked by that enemy pawn.
A pawn can capture an enemy pawn by En Passant ~ see related link below .
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In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind the pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and that cannot be advanced without loss of material, usually the backward pawn itself.
No , a pawn captures diagonally ~ see related link below .
No. Promoting your pawn counts as your move.
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